The brain has three main parts: the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem.
Cerebrum: is the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres.
It performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.
Cerebellum: is located under the cerebrum.
Its function is to coordinate muscle movements, maintain posture, and balance.
Brainstem: acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord. It performs many automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, body temperature, wake and sleep cycles, digestion, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.https://mayfieldclinic.com/pe-anatbrain.htm#:~:text=The%20brain%20has%20three%20main,and%20fine%20control%20of%20movement.
The cerebrum is divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal.
- Personality, behavior, emotions
- Judgment, planning, problem solving
- Speech: speaking and writing (Broca’s area)
- Body movement (motor strip)
- Intelligence, concentration, self awareness
- Interprets language, words
- Sense of touch, pain, temperature (sensory strip)
- Interprets signals from vision, hearing, motor, sensory and memory
- Spatial and visual perception
- Interprets vision (color, light, movement)
- Understanding language (Wernicke’s area)
- Sequencing and organization
From a biological standpoint, fear is a very important emotion. It helps you respond appropriately to threatening situations that could harm you.
This response is generated by stimulation of the amygdala, followed by the hypothalamus. This is why some people with brain damage affecting their amygdala don’t always respond appropriately to dangerous scenarios.
When the amygdala stimulates the hypothalamus, it initiates the fight-or-flight response. The hypothalamus sends signals to the adrenal glands to produce hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol.
As these hormones enter the bloodstream, you might notice some physical changes, such as an increase in:
- heart rate
- breathing rate
- blood sugar
In addition to initiating the fight-or-flight response, the amygdala also plays a role in fear learning. This refers to the process by which you develop an association between certain situations and feelings of fear.
Anger starts with the amygdala stimulating the hypothalamus, much like in the fear response. In addition, parts of the prefrontal cortex may also play a role in anger. People with damage to this area often have trouble controlling their emotions, especially anger and aggression.
Parts of the prefrontal cortex of the brain may also contribute to the regulation of an anger response. People with damage to this area of the brain sometimes have difficultyTrusted Source controlling their emotions, particularly anger and aggression.
Happiness refers to an overall state of well-being or satisfaction. When you feel happy, you generally have positive thoughts and feelings.
Imaging studies suggest that the happiness response originates partly in the limbic cortex. Another area called the precuneus also plays a role. The precuneus is involved in retrieving memories, maintaining your sense of self, and focusing your attention as you move about your environment.
It may sound strange, but the beginnings of romantic love are associated with the stress response triggered by your hypothalamus. It makes more sense when you think about the nervous excitement or anxiety you feel while falling for someone.
As these feelings grow, the hypothalamus triggers release of other hormones, such as dopamine, oxytocin, and vasopressin.
Dopamine is associated with your body’s reward system. This helps make love a desirable feeling.
Oxytocin is often referred to as the “love hormone.” This is largely because it increases when you hug someone or have an orgasm. It’s produced in the hypothalamus and released through your pituitary gland. It’s associated with social bonding as well. This is important for trust and building a relationship. It can also promote a feeling of calmness and contentment.
Vasopressin is similarly produced in your hypothalamus and released by your pituitary gland. It’s also involved in social bonding with a partner.